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About glass

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Bullet proof glass introduction
Mar 25, 2017

Ballistic glass is a composite material made of glass (or plexiglass) and high quality engineering plastics specially processed. It is usually a transparent material, such as PVB / polycarbonate fiber thermoplastics (generally the force of the resin that is lexan resin Also known as LEXAN PC RESIN). It has the appearance of ordinary glass and the behavior of the transmission of light, the small arms of the shooting to provide some protection. The thickest pc board can do 136 mm thick, the maximum width of 2166 mm wide, effective time up to 6664 days.

Classic case

On the night of February 9, 1998, Georgian President Shevardnadze was on his way home in a Mercedes-Benz car, suddenly from the darkness of the jungle sprang out more than 20 killers, to the President of the car crazy fire and throw grenades, The car was scarred, but fortunately, Shevardnadze was unscathed! What is the protection of the president to escape this disaster? Thanks to the German government gave him this $ 500,000 worth of Mercedes-Benz bulletproof cars. So why can the bulletproof car be able to bullet it? It was originally installed with a safety glass - bulletproof glass. Safety glass is a tough plastic inner layer (pc / PVB) will be two pieces of glass at a certain temperature and pressure from the paste, the thickness of the laminated pc is generally 0.5mm-5mm. Also known as laminated glass or cement glass, its plastic Layer can absorb the impact of the explosion and the process of part of the energy and shock wave pressure, even if the shattered will not scattered spatter. Laminated glass according to different needs can be used ordinary glass, tempered glass, heat-strengthened glass to make, can also be made of insulating glass. Safety glass has good safety, impact resistance and penetration resistance, with anti-theft, bulletproof, explosion-proof function.

Functional analysis

Different manufacturers of different bulletproof glass production. But basically are in the ordinary glass layer folder with polycarbonate material layer, this process is called lamination. In this process, the formation of a similar ordinary glass but thicker than ordinary glass material. Polycarbonate is a rigid transparent plastic - it is usually used to call it with its brand (Lakeson, Tuffak or Cyrolon). The thickness of the bulletproof glass is between 7 mm and 75 mm. A bullet fired on a bullet-proof glass breaks the outer glass, but the polycarbonate glass layer absorbs the energy of the bullet and prevents it from penetrating the inner layer of the glass. These large pieces of bulletproof glass have been used for public use during the Second World War, usually 10.0 to 12.0 centimeters thick and extremely heavy.

One-way bulletproof editing

Features

For example, the use of some bank bullet-proof vehicles to promote the invention of one-way bullet-proof glass. The glass will resist the outer side of the small weapon that fits the next, but will allow the side of the glass to shoot (on the side), such as the defender from the side of the bullet-proof car to shoot, and then through the glass shot in the external threat on.

principle

One-way bulletproof glass is usually made of two layers: a fragile layer on the outside and a pliable layer inside. When a bullet comes from the outside, the bullet will hit a fragile layer and break a region. This will absorb the kinetic energy of some bullets and spread kinetic energy in a larger area. When the slow bullet hit the pliable layer, it was blocked. But when the bullet is fired from it, it will hit the pliable layer first. The bullet can penetrate the pliable layer because its energy is concentrated in a small range, and the brittle layer breaks out of the flexible layer toward the outer shell, without prejudice to the bullets.

Bulletproof glass is in the glass with the light transmission, through the performance of the same time, but also on the bullet shooting with the ability to protect the glass. The bulletproof principle of the bulletproof glass is that it can convert the impact energy of the bullet into the elastic energy of the glass and the surface energy of the debris.

Structure composition editing

The bulletproof glass is actually made of a transparent gluing material that bonds a plurality of sheets of glass or a high strength organic sheet together. Generally have the following three-tier structure:

① bearing layer: the first layer to withstand the impact of the rupture, the general use of large thickness, high strength glass, can damage the warhead or change the shape of the warhead, so that it can continue to move forward capacity.

② transition layer: the general use of organic bonding materials, strong bonding, light resistance, and can absorb part of the impact energy, change the direction of the bullets forward. A very strong and transparent chemical film is sandwiched in laminated glass. This can not only effectively prevent the bullet shooting, but also has anti-surge impact, anti-blast, earthquake and impact does not appear after the crack and other properties.

③ safety layer: This layer of high-strength glass or high-strength transparent organic materials, have good flexibility and toughness, can absorb the vast majority of impact energy, and to ensure that the bullet can not pass through this layer

The most important performance indicator for bulletproof glass is bulletproof capability. Bullet-proof capability indicators are measured in two ways, on the one hand is the safety protection capability, on the other hand is the ability to protect the firearms.

Basic classification editing

According to the degree of protection of the human body, bullet-proof glass can be divided into two types, one is safe, one is life-safe. Safe bulletproof glass after being shot, the non-elastic surface without spatter, no harm to the human body; life-safe bullet-proof glass after being shot, non-elastic surface splash splash, but the bullet can not penetrate the glass, May cause secondary damage to the human body. Bulletproof glass according to the different guns of its bulletproof capacity and have different requirements. Bulletproof glass is divided into three series, the first is airborne bulletproof glass, the second is the vehicle, the ship with bulletproof glass, the third is the bank with bulletproof glass. Thickness between 18mm and 40mm.

Bulletproof glass is a kind of special glass that can be used in a kind of equivalent bomb explosion, the glass is not out of the frame, to maintain good or non-penetrating destruction of a high safety performance.

Principles of protection

In bomb attacks and accidental bombings, anti-bomb glass minimizes the direct damage caused by explosive shock wave ultrahigh loads and high-speed splashing glass fragments to reduce the cost of repairing the surroundings of the attacked facility or the explosion center. Anti-bomb glass in the explosion shock wave energy formation load surge, increase several times or even several times under the conditions to keep not penetrate, glass retention value RET≈1. And monolithic glass (including float glass, tempered glass, insulating glass) once broken, as long as a little more than the critical crushing pressure RET soon fell below 0.3, glass fragments scattered, penetrating damage. [1] 

Explosion protection function

On a global scale, bomb attacks (including car bombs, human bombs) and terrorist threats continue to rise, the Indonesian Marriott Hotel is a typical event, with the increase in the power of the bomb, people's lives and property is extremely serious Threaten. According to the analysis of security experts and related information, the glass scattered and debris splash is the main cause of injury. In the bombing of the bombing, 75% of the damage and glass, which means that if the use of anti-bomb glass can reduce the degree of damage by 75%. If the glass of the building is completely kept in the frame at the time of the explosion, the shock wave energy will not enter the room and the interior will not be destroyed; the high-speed debris will not enter the building or fall hurt.

Frame system

The rapid shock and shock caused by the explosion are the main cause of glass damage. And the debris comes from the weapon itself and the surrounding environment (such as the shaking of the building caused by debris off), to resist the destruction of the bombing effect, first of all the glass must withstand the shock wave and debris of these two attacks. Anti-bomb glass and anti-bomb glass frame system calculated by professional computing software, according to the glass retention, explosion shock pressure, shock pulse (kPa / msec), duration (msec), damage degree and other conditions to test, Calculate a certain amount of bomb explosion when the glass and the system can remain intact (glass is not broken), rupture (cracks, there can be part of the debris off, has penetrated). Anti-bomb glass should meet ASTM F1642-96 test requirements.

Main performance editor

1, can withstand a larger bomb blast impact load; [2]

2, the bomb exploded after the shock, the glass remained in the frame.

Anti-bomb glass combination:

Type A: DFB8 + Polymer Polymeric Material + DFB8

8mm high-strength single-chip cesium potassium fire glass + polymer polymer material + 8mm high-strength single-layer cesium potassium fire glass

Type B: DFB10 + Polymer Polymeric Material + DFB10

10mm high-strength single-layer cesium potassium fire glass + polymer polymer material + 10mm high-strength single-chip cesium potassium fire glass

Anti-bomb glass and other glass anti-explosion contrast:

Ordinary glass (annealed, tempered, semi-tempered) by the bomb blast, the glass fragments scattered, the glass penetrating damage, personnel and indoor facilities are seriously injured. RET ≈ 0-0.2.

Ordinary laminated glass by the bomb explosion, the glass rupture, the shock wave into the room, serious when the whole piece of broken glass flying, pound the human body caused serious damage, the overall damage range is less than ordinary glass. RET ≈ 0.3-0.5.

Anti-bomb glass is bombed by bombs, the glass is bent backwards, and the frame system is compressed backwards, the glass is complete or cracked, but there is no fragmentation to ensure that the indoor personnel and facilities are not hurt. RET ≈ 1.0.

Note:

RET: Hold value, indicating the overall retention of the glass within the frame.

RET = glass weight after explosion shock / glass weight before explosion impact

When RET = 1.0, the glass remains in the frame as a whole, the debris is not scattered, the glass does not appear to penetrate;

When RET = 0, the whole glass leaves the frame, the fragments are scattered, and the penetrating failure occurs.

Polymeric polymers are generally PVB, there are other types of transparent bullet-proof film, but PVB is a common material.

BULLET PROOF GLASS.jpg

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