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About glass

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Insulated glass for building
Apr 10, 2017

principle

Since the inside of the insulating glass has a desiccant which can adsorb water molecules, the gas is dry, and when the temperature is lowered, the inside of the insulating glass does not cause condensation, and the dew point on the outer surface of the insulating glass high. If the outdoor wind speed is 5m / s, the indoor temperature is 20 ℃ and the relative humidity is 60%, 5mm glass begins to condensation when the outdoor temperature is 8 ℃, and 16mm (5 + 6 + 5) insulating glass under the same conditions, Outdoor temperature of -2 ℃ when the condensation on the 27mm (5 +6 +5 +6 +5) three layers of insulating glass in the outdoor temperature of -11 ℃ when the condensation began.

Insulating glass energy transfer in three ways: radiation transmission, convection and conduction transmission.

Radiation transmission

Radiation is the transmission of energy through radiation in the form of radiation, which includes radiation such as visible light, infrared rays, and ultraviolet rays, as is the case with the transmission of sunlight. Reasonably configured insulating glass and reasonable insulating glass spacer thickness, can minimize the energy through the radiation form of transmission, thereby reducing the energy loss.

Convection

Convection is due to the temperature difference on both sides of the glass, causing the air to fall on the cold side and rise on the hot side, resulting in air convection, resulting in energy loss. There are several reasons for this phenomenon: First, the glass and the surrounding frame system of poor sealing, resulting in the window inside and outside the gas can be directly exchanged to produce convection, resulting in energy loss; Second, the hollow glass interior space structure design Unreasonable, resulting in the insulating glass internal gas due to the role of temperature difference convection, driven by energy exchange, resulting in the loss of energy; Third, constitute the entire system of the window between the temperature difference between the larger, resulting in hollow glass inside and outside the temperature difference Large, air with the role of cold radiation and heat conduction, first in the hollow glass on both sides of the convection, and then through the hollow glass as a whole to pass the formation of energy loss. Reasonable insulating glass design, can reduce the convection of the gas, thereby reducing the energy convection loss.

Conduction transmission

Conduction is the movement of objects through the movement of molecules, driven by energy to exercise, and to achieve the purpose of transmission, as with rice cookers and iron soldering things like the same, while the insulating glass conduction of energy through the glass and its internal Air to finish. We know that the glass thermal conductivity is 0.77W / mk. And the thermal conductivity of the air is 0.028 W / mk, we can see that the thermal conductivity of glass is 27 times that of air, and the presence of active molecules such as water molecules in the air is the conduction and convection transfer properties of the insulating glass The main factors, thus improving the sealing performance of insulating glass, is to improve the insulating glass insulation performance of the important factors.

Feature editing

① large energy saving effect

Insulating glass

Insulating glass

High-performance insulating glass, due to a layer of special metal film, can reach 0.22-0.49 shielding factor, so that indoor air conditioning (air conditioning) load to reduce. Heat transfer coefficient of 1.4-2.8W (m2.K), better than ordinary insulating glass. To reduce the indoor heating load, the same play a great efficiency. Therefore, the larger the window is opened, the more obvious the energy saving effect.

② improve the indoor environment

High-performance insulating glass can intercept the sun from the indoor considerable energy, which can prevent the heat caused by radiation discomfort and reduce sunset sun caused dizziness.

③ rich color and artistic

High-performance insulating glass has a variety of colors, according to the need to use color, in order to achieve more desirable artistic effect.

④ high performance hollow glass use

Applicable to office buildings, exhibition rooms, libraries and other public facilities and like computer rooms, precision instruments workshop, chemical plants and other requirements of constant temperature and humidity of the special buildings. It can also be used for sunbathing and sunset places.

Note: hollow glass in the middle of the dry air, so according to temperature, pressure changes, the internal air pressure also will change, but the glass surface only a small deformation. In addition, minor warping may occur during manufacture, and distortion may occur during construction. So including some of these factors, sometimes the reflection of the corresponding changes, should be taken seriously. Selection of different colors, reflection is not the same.

Gold, copper and silver metal coating in the far infrared area, that is, wavelength range greater than 4μm, the reflectivity is high. If the metal coating is a typical thickness, the total reflectance can reach 90% -95%, high infrared reflectivity is equivalent to low emissivity (Low-e), which will reduce the insulating glass inside and outside the glass plate radiation conversion, and this Correspondingly, compared with the air layer for the 12mm standard insulating glass member, the insulation value can be from 0.3W / (m2.K). In addition, if the air in the component is replaced by heavy gas, the heat insulation value is 1.4W / (m2.K). Thinning the thickness of the metal layer, light transmittance can be increased to about 60% -60%. This very thin coating has a very good effect of protecting too much, while still having a high infrared reflectance value in the range of 85% or 75%. The air layer is filled with 12% of the middle of the heavy gas, with the coating insulation value of up to 1.6-1.9W / (m2.K).

Main use editor

The use of insulating glass

Insulating glass is mainly used for buildings that require heating, air conditioning, noise or condensation, and the need for non-direct sunlight and special light. Widely used in residential, hotels, hotels, office buildings, schools, hospitals, shops and other occasions need indoor air conditioning. Can also be used for trains, cars, ships, freezers doors and windows, etc..

Insulating glass is mainly used for outer glass decoration. Its optical performance, thermal conductivity, sound insulation coefficient should meet the national standard. Reasonable structure, designed to meet the standard of insulating glass, in order to play its insulation, noise, security, fire effect. The use of vacuum double-layer tempered glass can reach the laboratory standards! The market also add inert gas and color pigment gas hollow glass, as well as increase the beauty of the bar and so play a role in reinforcement and decoration.

The role of insulating glass aluminum barrier: aluminum is called active metal elements, but in the air its surface will form a layer of dense oxide film, so that it can not continue with the oxygen, water. At high temperatures can react with oxygen, release a lot of heat, with such high heat, aluminum can be replaced from other oxides of metal (aluminum thermal method) [1]

Security performance editing

Insulating glass

Insulating glass

As the insulating glass insulation performance is better, the temperature difference between the two sides of the glass can also reduce the role of cold radiation; when the outdoor temperature of -10 ℃, the indoor single-layer glass window temperature of -2 ℃ and hollow The temperature of the glass window is 13 ℃; in the same housing structure, when the outdoor temperature is -8 ℃, the indoor temperature is 20 ℃, 3mm ordinary single layer of glass cold radiation area accounted for 67.4% of indoor space, Insulating glass (3 + 6 + 3) was 13.4%.

The use of insulating glass, can improve the safety of glass, in the use of the same thickness of the original film glass case, the hollow glass of wind pressure strength is 1.5 times the ordinary single glass.


Design Points

1-channel aluminum double-loop sealed insulating glass The first seal with butyl rubber, with a very low water vapor transmission rate; the second sealant mainly polysulfide and silicone glue. Polysulfide water vapor transmission rate is less than silicone rubber, but anti-ultraviolet ability as silicone glue, it is suitable for windows or framed glass curtain wall (due to aluminum frame can be shade, to avoid direct sunlight); silicone rubber is suitable for Hidden frame glass curtain wall, its anti-ultraviolet ability and strength are higher than the polysulfide glue. When the building on the insulating glass has a higher decorative requirements, the choice of milky white or transparent silicone rubber. Wooden windows are used to avoid the use of silicone rubber as the second seal, because of its ability to resist wood preservatives is poor, sealants will be damaged due to migration.

2 interval aluminum frame should adopt continuous long pipe bending angle, the joints apply butyl rubber to do the sealing treatment; interval aluminum frame, such as the use of four-point plug-in, the various joints also use butyl rubber seal processing, made of Of the insulating glass, the service life is not as good as the former. When the insulating glass is used in the second sealant silicone glue, should not use four-angle plug-in spacing aluminum frame of insulating glass.

3 because the use of sealant seal, it should not be used at 70 ℃ or higher temperature, otherwise it will greatly affect the life of insulating glass.

4 hollow glass air layer changes in the internal pressure of the glass deformation, will lead to image distortion, so the altitude of 1000m or above the use of insulating glass, the air layer of the air pressure must be adjusted, the order should be negotiated with the glass supplier.

5 window insulation performance and window frame material is closely related, so should choose a good thermal insulation window frame material.

6 If used as a lighting ceiling, indoor glass should be used sandwich or explosion-proof membrane.

7 Low-E insulating glass, the membrane surface on the 2nd or 3rd side, should be selected according to design needs. If the design of the insulating glass must be in the form of large and small pieces, the membrane surface must be placed on the third side.

8 The maximum allowable area for the four sides of the insulating glass is 1.5 times the maximum allowable area calculated for the thickness of the two glass sheets.

9 architectural design should meet the following technical performance requirements: insulation properties, thermal insulation properties, sound insulation performance, lighting performance, sealing performance, weathering performance.

Warm side seal system

Insulating glass

Insulating glass

(1) doors and windows with insulating glass, you can use a separate tape sealing system as a single channel seal, you can ensure that the insulating glass with more than 10 years of service life. Curtain wall with insulating glass, must be in the plastic

The outer seal of the adhesive is used as the secondary sealant to ensure that the insulating glass has sufficient structural strength.

(2) is particularly suitable for the production of special-shaped insulating glass and inflatable insulating glass, especially suitable for shaped inflatable Low-E insulating glass, because the tape itself does not have a negative impact on the Low-E film volatile gas, so to ensure Low- Glass has a long service life.

(3) Super Spacer Insulating Glass

Window with insulating glass, can be in the super compartment on the outside of the closure of the depth of the hot melt butyl rubber to ensure that the insulating glass sealing system has sufficient resistance to water vapor permeability. Curtain wall with insulating glass, must be in the hot melt butyl rubber outside the closure of the depth of the third layer of structural adhesive to ensure that the insulating glass has sufficient structural strength and service life.

Traditional warm edge separation system

(1) U-type insulating glass

Window with insulating glass, you can only use hot melt butyl rubber as a separate sealing material used. Curtain wall with insulating glass, must be in the hot melt butyl rubber outside the closure of the depth of the structural adhesive to ensure that there is sufficient bonding strength and service life. In the use of inflatable insulating glass, you must pay great attention to the U-shaped joints at the seal.

(2) injection of aluminum-type insulating glass

Basically the same with the traditional aluminum insulating glass, it should be noted that this product is used in the middle of the two aluminum materials used in the insulation material bonding, so the thickness of the entire aluminum must be more than 12mm to achieve, and because the middle of the heat Material characteristics, it is difficult to achieve corner processing at the corner, so the design of the use of inflatable hollow glass need to pay attention to the corner of the seal control.

Process conditions

1, according to the wind load control hole size and the required thickness of the glass.

2, the insulating glass to be made of construction, size can not be changed, the installation of insulating glass openings should be rectangular and vertical, pay attention to check the accuracy of its specifications.

3, the insulating glass does not allow any surface covered by paint or paper, because it will cause local overheating and lead to broken.

4, the insulating glass shall not be in direct contact with the frame.

5, the installation requirements should be based on mosaic insulating glass material changes.

Main issues editor

Insulating glass as building energy-saving materials, because of its good insulation and sound insulation performance is widely used. At the same time the quality of insulating glass is getting higher and higher. It is understood that the biggest problem of insulating glass is the use of air in the condensation, and air layer condensation is the reason that the dew point of the air layer in the use of the process increased. So the control of insulating glass dew point is the key to control the quality of insulating glass.

Insulating glass During use, the surface of the dry air layer will cause condensation or frost when the ambient temperature is reduced to reduce the glass surface temperature to the dew point in the dry air layer. The effect of insulating glass is affected by condensation or frost on the inner surface of the glass. If you ensure that the air layer at minus 40 degrees Celsius above the condensation, the use of insulating glass in the air is not the phenomenon of condensation.

The dew point of the insulating glass refers to the temperature at which the air humidity in the air layer reaches a saturated state. Below this temperature, the water vapor in the air layer condenses into liquid water. Can be introduced: the higher the water content, the higher the dew point temperature of the air, when the glass surface temperature is lower than the air layer of air dew point, the air will be in the glass surface condensation or frost.

The dew point of the insulating glass is caused by the outside of the water into the air layer without being absorbed by the desiccant, which may cause the dew point to rise for three reasons:

(1) sealant inside the bubble, leading to air moisture into.

(2) Water vapor is diffused into the air layer through the polymer.

(3) desiccant effective adsorption capacity is low.

Control of control

(1) strict control of the production environment temperature

The production environment mainly affects the ability to attach and the remaining capacity.

(2) reduce the diffusion of water through the polymer

Mainly by selecting the low permeability coefficient of the sealant to determine a reasonable thickness of the seal to reduce the temperature difference between the inside and outside the insulating glass (that is, control in a certain temperature range and can not make the temperature range is too large).

(3) reduce the production process time

Minimize the contact time between the desiccant and the atmosphere, reduce the loss of adsorption capacity and make the desiccant have a higher adsorption capacity.

(4) choose the appropriate aluminum

The pores of the air guide to small, to reduce the process of molecular sieve water absorption.

(5) Select the appropriate desiccant

Choose a higher and long-lasting desiccant.

I believe that through the election materials, processing, environmental and other aspects of the control, the quality of insulating glass will be significantly controlled.

Production process editor

1 heated glass should adopt multiple sets of pressure roller, gradually pressed to the required thickness. Each set of rollers should be parallel to each other to ensure that the thickness of the pressed glass is uniform.

2 by the press at the exit of the temperature of the tape should be controlled at 40-55 ℃.

3 composite tape insulating glass sealing the use of three-step program that pressure, turn, pinch procedures to complete the final hollow glass sealing operation.

① pressure: the outer side of the strip along the vertical direction of the other side of the pressure to the squeeze to the two pieces of tape completely fused together;

② Shui: the excess glue along the middle of the hollow layer of hollow glass smooth, so there is no extra plastic outside;

③ pinch: the two pieces of glass inward pinch, eliminate the pressure, the glass caused by the separation of the gap caused by the separation.

Note the problem

① the temperature of the tape leaving the hot press;

② tape sealing temperature, thickness, flatness, displacement;

③ the integrity of the sealing surface of the tape;

④ sealing tightness.

Identification method

1, filled with inert gas argon and krypton

According to the experts in the design and construction of energy-saving housing, in terms of a window, the loss of heat in the house mainly through the window frame conduction, glass radiation, window and door frame gap convection and other means, and thus have a "hollow glass" And students. In fact, "insulating glass" is not "empty", according to technical requirements of the gap between the two layers of hollow glass is generally 8mm, the test proved that if the 8mm spacing completely vacuum, the atmospheric pressure will crush the glass. So qualified insulating glass. The interlayer, ie 8mm thick spacing space, must be filled with inert gas argon and krypton. After filling, the test shows its K value (heat transfer coefficient limit), compared to vacuum state, can also be reduced by 5%, which means better insulation performance.

2, the market confused double glass

In other words, if you buy back the hollow glass within the sandwich is really "empty", it is undoubtedly that its insulation or insulation barrier performance at best is double glass, insulation energy efficiency is inevitable, scientific proof, Qualified insulating glass, can make the general window heat transfer coefficient limit value k value from the original 3.5 down to 2.8, the heat transfer performance can make the heat is not easy to lose the house. Market counterfeit hollow glass, most of the two glass is simply fixed together, the insulation performance is undoubtedly poor.

3, between the glass folder with aluminum hole

Poor insulation performance of the "double glass", often due to the entry of air and water into the sandwich within the fog, and even bear the mold point, so some companies are often used in the two pieces of glass with holes between the aluminum, In the aluminum bar of the pores into the granular desiccant "processing" approach, in fact, only played a temporary deceive role, did not improve the double glass of any insulation performance, time long desiccant failure, or will Revealing stuffing.

"Check out the body," a trick, that is, look at the winter there is no frost between the glass, spring and summer to see if there is no water vapor. Of course, which embedded in the aluminum, and often the majority of false vacuum. The material of the window frame is also a sign, hollow glass are generally steel rather than aluminum

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