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About glass

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Plexiglass Acrylic introdution
Apr 14, 2017

principle

Plexiglass, English: (Polymethyl methacrylate), abbreviated as: PMMA; plexiglass chemical name is called polymethyl methacrylate, is composed of methacrylate polymerization of polymer compounds. Smooth surface, colorful, small proportion, high strength, corrosion resistance, moisture, light fastness, good insulation properties, good sound insulation. Can be divided into three kinds of material, bar material, plate shape.

Acrylic acid and its esters as raw materials for polymerization of the polymer referred to as acrylic resin, the corresponding plastic collectively referred to as polyacrylic plastic, of which the most widely used polymethyl methacrylate. Polymethyl methacrylate abbreviation code PMMA, commonly known as plexiglass, has excellent light transmission performance, through more than 92% of the sun, ultraviolet up to 73.5%; mechanical strength is high, there is a certain heat and cold Corrosion resistance, good insulation properties, dimensional stability, easy to shape, more brittle texture, soluble in organic solvents, surface hardness is not enough, easy to scrub, can be required to have a certain strength of the transparent structural parts, such as oil cups, Instrument parts, optical lenses, decorative gifts, and so on. Add some additives inside it can improve its performance, such as heat, friction and so on. The material is widely used in advertising light boxes, nameplates and other aspects of the production.

species

Plexiglass can be divided into four types according to the shape:

1. Colorless transparent plexiglass

The most common, the largest amount of plexiglass used.

2. Colored transparent plexiglass

Commonly known as color plate. Translucent soft, made with it light boxes, handicrafts, people feel comfortable and generous. Colored organic

chandelier

chandelier

Glass points: transparent and colored, translucent colored, opaque and non-ferrous three. Magnetic plexiglass gloss as pearl plexiglass bright, crisp, easy to break, suitable for making dials, boxes, medical equipment and characters, animal modeling materials. Transparent plexiglass: high transparency, should be made lamps. Use it made of chandeliers, exquisitely carved, crystal clear clarity. Translucent plexiglass similar to frosted glass, reflective soft, made with it crafts, people feel comfortable and generous.

Pearl plexiglass

Is in the general plexiglass by adding pearl powder or phosphor into. This kind of plexiglass bright color, high surface finish, outside the form of hot pressing by the mold, even polished polished, still maintain the pattern, the formation of the artistic effect of the only thing. Use it to make people, animal shapes, trademarks, decorations and promotional materials.

4. Embossed plexiglass

Transparent, translucent colorless, crisp, easy to break, in the interior doors and windows and other decorative use, with both translucent but not transparent features, usually in the indoor partition or compartment between the doors and windows to use.

Feature editing

Poly methyl methacrylate is commonly known as plexiglass, the abbreviation PMMA, with high transparency, low price, easy machining, etc., is often used glass replacement materials. Plexiglass is an important early development of an important thermoplastic, with transparency, stability and weatherability, easy to dye, easy processing, beautiful appearance, in the construction industry has a wide range of applications.

① highly transparent. Plexiglass is the most excellent polymer transparent material, light transmittance to achieve

Plexiglass

Plexiglass

92% higher than the glass transmittance. The lamp of the sun lamp, known as the artificial sun, is made of quartz, because the quartz can pass completely through the ultraviolet rays. Ordinary glass can only pass 0.6% of the UV, but plexiglass can pass through 73%.

② high mechanical strength. Plexiglass has a relative molecular mass of about 2 million, is a long chain of polymer compounds, and the formation of molecular chain is very soft, so the strength of plexiglass is relatively high, tensile and impact resistance than ordinary glass high 7- 18 times. There is a heated and stretched plexiglass in which the molecular segments are arranged in a very orderly manner, resulting in a significant improvement in the toughness of the material. Nail into this plexiglass, even if the nail penetrated, plexiglass does not produce cracks. This plexiglass is not broken after the bullet breakdown. Therefore, the piled plexiglass can be used as a bulletproof glass, also used as a cockpit on a military aircraft.

③ light weight. Plexiglass density of 1.18g / cm3 ;, the same size of the material, its weight is only half of ordinary glass, metal aluminum (belonging to light metal) 43%.

④ easy to process. Plexiglass can not only use the lathe for cutting, drilling machine drilling, and can use acetone, chloroform and other objects into a variety of shapes, but also with blow molding, injection, extrusion and other plastic molding method into large aircraft Cockpit cover, small to dentures and dental care and other products.

advantage

1, plexiglass aesthetics: a mirror effect, exquisite craft, no wrinkles, no seams;

Second, the plexiglass visual effects: a variety of colors, visual impact is very strong;

Third, the transparency of plexiglass: light transmittance can reach 96%, excellent light transmission, the light is more soft;

Fourth, the impact resistance of plexiglass: ordinary glass products more than 200 times, almost no risk of any break;

5, plexiglass durability: the product has a very good protection on the built-in light source to extend the life of light source products;

6, plexiglass weather resistance: to protect long-term does not fade, good quality plate life of up to 6 - 13 years;

7, plexiglass flame resistance: no spontaneous combustion and self-extinguishing;

8, plexiglass energy-saving: light transmission is very good, relatively reduce the light source, power, reduce the cost of use;

9, the rationality of plexiglass: rational design and rain and moisture, open the structure, easy to clean and maintenance.

Electrical performance

Poly (methyl methacrylate), because the main chain side contains polar methyl ester, electrical properties and polyolefins and polystyrene and other non-polar plastic. The polarity of the methyl ester groups is not too great, and polymethylmethacrylate still has good dielectric and electrical insulating properties. It is worth noting that the polymethyl methacrylate and the entire acrylic plastic, have excellent resistance to arc, under the action of the arc, the surface does not produce carbonized conductive path and arc track phenomenon. 20 ° C is a secondary transition temperature, which corresponds to the temperature at which the sidemethyl ester starts to move. Below 20 ° C, the sidemethyl ester group is in a frozen state and the electrical properties of the material are higher than 20 ° C.

Physical performance

Poly (methyl methacrylate) has good comprehensive mechanical properties, in the general plastic in the forefront, stretching, bending, compression and other strength are higher than the polyolefin, but also higher than polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, impact toughness is poor, But also slightly better than polystyrene. Pouring the bulk polymerization of polymethyl methacrylate sheet (such as aerospace plexiglass plate) tensile, bending, compression and other mechanical properties higher, can achieve polyamide, polycarbonate and other engineering plastics level.

In general, the tensile strength of polymethyl methacrylate can reach 50-77MPa level, bending strength can reach 90-130MPa, the upper limit of these performance data has reached or even more than some engineering plastics. The elongation at break is only 2% -3%, so the mechanical properties of the characteristics are basically hard and brittle plastic, and has a gap sensitivity, easy to crack under stress, but fracture is not like polystyrene and ordinary inorganic glass So sharp and uneven. 40 ° C is a secondary transition temperature, which corresponds to the temperature at which the methyl group starts to move. If the temperature exceeds 40 ° C, the toughness and ductility of the material are improved. Poly methyl methacrylate surface hardness is low, easy to scratch.

The strength of polymethyl methacrylate is related to the time of stress, and the strength decreases with the increase of the working time. The mechanical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (oriented plexiglass) after tensile orientation are improved and the notch sensitivity is improved.

Poly methyl methacrylate heat resistance is not high, although its glass transition temperature reached 104 ℃, but the maximum continuous use temperature with the working conditions vary in the 65 ℃ -95 ℃ between the change, the heat distortion temperature of about 96 ° C (1.18 MPa), Vicat softening point of about 113 ° C. The heat resistance can be improved by copolymerizing the monomer with the methacrylate or the ethylene glycol methacrylate. Poly (methyl methacrylate) is also poor in cold resistance, brittle temperature of about 9.2 ℃. The thermal stability of polymethylmethacrylate is moderate, better than polyvinyl chloride and polyoxymethylene, but less than polyolefin and polystyrene, the thermal decomposition temperature is slightly higher than 270 ℃, the flow temperature is about 160 ℃, so still There is a wide range of melt processing temperatures.

The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of polymethylmethacrylate are in the middle of the range of 0.19 W / M and 1464 J / Kg.K

Chemical properties

Resistant chemical reagents and solvent resistance

Poly (methyl methacrylate) is resistant to dilute inorganic acids, but concentrated inorganic acids can attack it, can be alkali, but the warm sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide can make it corrosion, salt And grease, aliphatic hydrocarbons, insoluble in water, methanol, glycerol, etc., but can absorb alcohol swelling, and produce stress cracking, non-ketones, chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons. Its solubility parameter is about 18.8 (J / CM3) 1/2, which can be dissolved in many chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatics, such as dichloroethane, trichlorethylene, chloroform, toluene, etc., vinyl acetate and acetone can also make it Dissolve.

Poly methyl methacrylate has good resistance to ozone and sulfur dioxide and other gases.

Weatherability

Poly (methyl methacrylate) has excellent resistance to atmospheric aging, the sample after 4 years of natural aging test, weight change, tensile strength, light transmittance decreased slightly, the color was slightly yellowing, anti-crazing decline Obviously, the impact strength is also slightly improved, other physical properties almost unchanged.

Flammability

Poly methyl methacrylate is easy to burn, the limiting oxygen index is only 17.3. [1] 

Application 

Plexiglass is widely used,

Not only in business, light industry, construction, chemical and so on. And the production of plexiglass, advertising decoration, sand table model is widely used, such as: signs, billboards, light boxes and the panel of Chinese and English alphabet.

Selection depends on the design, what kind of shape, what kind of plexiglass, color, variety should be tested repeatedly to achieve the best results. With a good shape design, but also rely on careful processing, in order to become a beautiful handicrafts.

1. Architectural applications: window, noise doors and windows, light mask, telephone booths and so on

2. Advertising applications: light boxes, signs, signs, exhibition and so on

3. Transportation applications: train, car and other vehicles, such as doors and windows

4. Medical applications: baby care box, a variety of surgical and medical equipment civilian supplies: bathroom facilities, handicrafts, cosmetics, stents, aquariums, etc.

5. Industrial applications: instrument panel and cover, and so on

6. Lighting applications: fluorescent lamps, chandeliers, street lights and so on

7. Home applications: fruit plate, tissue boxes, acrylic art paintings and other household products

Structure editing

First, the plexiglass is made of polymethyl methacrylate, polymethyl methacrylate contains polar side methyl, with strong hygroscopic properties, water absorption is generally in the acrylic sheet must be kept dry, dry conditions required is 78 Dried at -80 ° C for 5-6 h.

Plexiglass is an invisible polymer, its shrinkage range is reduced, are generally in the 0.45% -0.9, so the acrylic production time for the molding accuracy provides a very good condition, under normal circumstances Are very accurate.

Third, by the polymethyl methacrylate on the ambient temperature range does not have a common fluid, but with non-Newtonian fluid, so the case of high temperature, plexiglass will reduce the viscosity of the plexiglass Very sensitive to temperature performance.

4, plexiglass in the process of flowing the temperature are generally around 150 ℃, but when the plexiglass began to break down when the temperature is higher than 270 ℃, so that the temperature changes are still very flexible, will not be The impact of temperature and production, high temperature is the characteristics of plexiglass.

5, plexiglass also has a very good cutting performance, can be measured in a good size under the conditions of laser cutting processing, simple high quality, this feature is not available in the glass, so the acrylic can withstand high temperature and low temperature of various environments , Consumers in the production process do not have to worry about the temperature problem.

Use edits

mechanical

Plexiglass has the above excellent performance, making it very versatile. In addition to being used as a cockpit cover on the airplane, the windshield chord windows are also used as jeeps for windshields and windows, large building sunroofs (which can be broken), television and radar screens, instruments and equipment enclosures, , Binoculars and optical lenses on the camera.

Made of plexiglass made a wide range of daily necessities, such as pearl plexiglass made of buttons, all kinds of toys, lamps are also because of the decorative effect of colored plexiglass, and is particularly beautiful.

Medical care

Plexiglass in medicine there is a wonderful use, that is to create artificial cornea. If the transparent cornea of the human eye is covered with opaque material, the light can not enter the eye. This is caused by leukoplakia caused by blindness, and this disease can not be treated with drugs.

So, medical scientists imagine using artificial cornea to replace the leukoplakia. The so-called artificial cornea, is made of a transparent material with a diameter of only a few millimeters of the mirror column, and then in the human eye cornea drilling a small hole, the lens column fixed on the cornea, the light through the column into the eye, The human eye will be able to see the light again.

As early as 1771, there are ophthalmologists with optical glass made of mirror column, implanted cornea, but did not succeed. Later, with crystal instead of optical glass, only half a year on the failure. In the Second World War, some aircraft crash, the plane was made of plexiglass cockpit cover, the pilot's eyes embedded in the plexiglass fragments. After many years, although these fragments have not been removed, but also did not cause further human eye inflammation or other adverse reactions. This happened by accident that plexiglass and human tissue have good compatibility. But also inspired the ophthalmologist, plexiglass can be used to create artificial cornea, its light transmission is good, stable chemical properties, non-toxic to the human body, easy to process into the required shape, long-term compatibility with the human eye. Artificial corneas made of plexiglass have been commonly used clinically.

building

In the construction, the plexiglass is mainly used in lighting, roof, roof, stairs and indoor wall panels and so on. Plexiglass in the highway and high road lighting shade and automotive lighting applications are also quite fast. With the construction of large cities hotels, hotels and high-level residential, the rapid development of lighting, the use of plexiglass extrusion board made of the body with high overall structural strength, light weight, high light transmission and good security and other characteristics, and Inorganic glass lighting device compared to a great advantage.

In the sanitary ware, plexiglass can be made bathtub, washbasin, dressing table and other products. As the plexiglass bathtub with a luxurious appearance, a sense of depth, easy to clean, high strength, light weight and the use of comfort and other characteristics have been widely used.

The United States and Japan have made mandatory provisions in the law, primary and secondary schools and kindergarten buildings must use plexiglass. With the continuous improvement of our law, is expected in the near future will make the corresponding provisions. At the same time, accelerate the pace of urban construction in China, the use of plexiglass production of street signs, advertising light boxes and telephone booths will also be a large number of plexiglass development space is very large, the market prospect is very broad!

Differences 




It looks like a family, in fact they are completely different from the two. Ordinary glass structure is silicate, but plexiglass "



Production Method

Paste method

Plexiglass

Plexiglass

The plexiglass cut into a certain shape, the paste on the plane made.

Hot pressing method

The plexiglass sheet is heated and heated in a mold. This modeling method of handicrafts with a plump body, smooth curves, three-dimensional sense of the characteristics of a relief effect. Hot stamping die can be used wood, sludge molded, and then cast lead, gypsum material for yin and yang mold, plexiglass heating can be pressed after molding.

Mosaic method

Will be different colors of plexiglass pieces cut into pumping geometric patterns, in the backplane mosaic made of stitching. This method requires splicing tight, angular, can receive a strong color, but seamless effect.

Vertical grinding method

Will stick-shaped plexiglass or thick plate-shaped plexiglass bonding, directly on the grinding wheel grinding, polishing molding. The craft produced by this method is similar to a sculpture, and is composed of a colorful surface shape that constitutes a unique artistic image.

Broken method

The plate-shaped plexiglass overlap paste together, and then directly cut the surface molding. This method is made of crafts can get color change, muddy natural effect.

Hot simmer method

The plexiglass processing to a certain shape, the plexiglass heating, directly by hand quickly nested, kneading molding. Some of the requirements of the law in advance on the composition of the chest, action agile, at one go. With this method made of handicrafts with unrestrained lines, the image of simple and so on.

Several of the above methods can be used interchangeably, according to the artistic requirements of the design of the design, the best way.

Construction method editor

There are many kinds of plexiglass materials, imports and domestic difference is very large, imports of plexiglass cut out very smooth, and some domestic impurities too much, will blister. Acrylic cutting generally use low-speed machines, because the laser tube power is not great, and thin material accuracy requirements are relatively high. The general speed of not more than 3 m / min.

Thick material cutting (10-20mm) 10mm or more plexiglass generally use 75mm focusing lens, 25mm or more plexiglass with 100mm focusing lens, the deepest cutting 32mm plexiglass. 10mm plexiglass cutting: cutting speed is generally 0.08-0.12 m / min, light intensity 60-70%. In the light intensity of 60% of the time the most stable, leak air jet to adjust the size of the air flow, so that the edge is more smooth. Because the greater the blow when the melting material is assisted by high-pressure gas blowing back to the plexiglass to form a non-smooth surface. Try to keep the wind small. Sometimes, customers need to add paper or add film cutting, then the wind can not be too small, otherwise it will catch fire. Cut the plexiglass when the speed and light intensity must be with the better, the slower the smoothness is not the better. 15mm or more plexiglass is best to use imported high-power lasers. Plexiglass carving with leaky jet cup, try not to carve too deep, carving too deep difficult to reach the bottom of the flatness, the greater the impact of the gas will affect the edge of the carving, to be carved more fine and clear, not too deep and blowing stingy, acrylic Engraving need to pay attention to the resolution of the settings, if the output BMP format, the resolution is generally more than 600dpi, this time the speed of 8-18 m / min, light intensity of 20% -30%, when cleaning off the bottom of the blowing Smoother.

(2-10mm) 5mm or less plexiglass with 50mm focusing lens, cutting speed is generally 0.35-0.8 m / min, light intensity of 45-65%, 5-10mm plexiglass generally use 63.5 mm focus Mirror, cutting speed of 0.15-0.3 m / min, light intensity of 50-75%, a large area engraving machine, carving if there is more serious resonance (vibration), will also cause the accuracy of the engraving machine greatly reduced, so Cut the format of the plexiglass model as much as possible not more than 1 meter, as well as plexiglass carved characters in the process of producing some white powder, which feel clearer, if the carving finished with water erase, it is more blurred. To see what kind of processing is done with a specific effect.

The physical properties of plexiglass:

Density: 1.19g / cm 3 Transmittance: 99% Impact strength ≥16kg / cm 3 Tensile strength ≥61Kg / cm 3 Heat change temperature ≥78 ℃ Heat softening temperature ≥105 ℃

Plexiglass bonding method to be different needs, 502 can be less demanding, but requires a high degree of chloroform referred to as chloroform is not necessarily the best, acetone also need, but it is best to mix several formulations

Mainly affects editors

Plexiglass is not harmful to the human body, but the use of some plexiglass daily necessities will have a certain harm to the human body, but the harm is not, because the plexiglass cup contains organic compounds will not be soluble in water. Plexiglass is a popular name, this polymer transparent material chemical name called polymethyl methacrylate, English referred to as PMMA, is made of methyl methacrylate polymerization, the market there is a name - acrylic The Usually, plexiglass or a variety of plastic products on behalf of said. Plastic belongs to the chemical macromolecule material, most of the polymer chemical material is normal to the human body harmless.